Himmerfjärden is a coastal bay system of 232 km2, located 60 km S of Stockholm, Sweden. Area is 1286 km2, with 8% lakes, 20% agricultural land, 65% forest, 3% built area. Mean water input 8 m3s-1 from 9 brooks and streams, 7 m3s-1 from Lake Mälaren through Södertälje, 2 m3s-1 diffuse runoff, 1.5 m3s-1 treated sewage ,4 m3s-1 rain.
Human activities are Sewage from Urban area, industrial, Shipping, Fisheries, Agriculture, Forestry.
Policy issues are: 1) Difference in interpretation of Urban Waste Water Directive between Sweden and EU, 2) Need for legislation that allows an Adaptive Management approach to minimize coastal eutrophication, 3) Implementation of advance nutrient reduction to minimize coastal and open sea eutrophication, 4) Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the Swedish Coastal Zone.
Policy changes: 1974 Greatly increased discharge of treated sewage, 1984 experimentally increased phosphorus load during one year, 1997 introduction of enhanced nitrogen removal (c.85%) in Sewage treatment plant, 1997-2005 temporary use of an Adaptive Management approach for running the sewage treatment plant, from 2004 implementation of the Water Framework Directive. Permanent permission for adaptive sewage management will be sought in 2008, when a long-term discharge permit for the Himmerfjärden sewage treatment plant will be decided.
|Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy, Contact person Dr. Tore Söderqvist, firstname.lastname@example.org (environmental economics); Gerald Moore, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth, PL1 3DH, UK, E-mail email@example.com (marine remote sensing) Paul Te